The last census, conducted in 2017, determined that there were 31,237,385 Peruvians. From 1940 to the time of this census, the population of Peru has quadrupled. About 25% of Peruvians live in extreme poverty. Also, about half of the population lives in rural areas. Lima is the most populated region with 9.4 million inhabitants. The most populated regions are mainly located in northern Peru (Lima, Piura, La Libertad, and Arequipa).

The official language of Peru is Castellano (Spanish from the region of Castilla in Spain), but in the areas where another language is predominantly spoken that language is also considered official. For instance, in the highlands, Quechua and Aimara are also official languages and are taught in school.

Population & Government of Peru - My Peru Guide



Peru is a democratic country with a president elected every five years and a congress consisting of 130 congressmen, also elected also every five years, by regions. (The number of congressmen per region is based on each region’s population.) Currently, Martin Vizcarra Cornejo is the president (until July 28, 2021). He belongs to the "Peruanos Por el Kambio" partie (aka "PPK") with 15 congressmen.

There are 25 Regions in Peru (aka "Departamentos"). Each Region, equivalent to a State in the U.S., has a president and a capital. Each Region comprises several Provinces (Counties in the US) and Districts (Towns in the U.S.), each of which has an official, like a mayor, who is elected every four years.

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