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 AREQUIPA History & Chronology The Region of Arequipa has a rich history and a varied landscape. The presence of humans in this region can be traced all the way back to 7000 BC. Dated to be about 5000 years old, the Cave Paintings of Sumbay in the Andean Mountains at 4127 meters above sea level are an important ancient site. These ancient paintings display the practices, mostly hunting and gathering, of the first Peruvians settled in this area. The Wari Culture ruled the southern area of Peru including a portion of Arequipa, mainly in the Provinces of Condesuyos and Castilla. The most important site is Toro Muerto near the Valley of Majes. After the Wari people ruled part of Arequipa, there wasn't another major empire or civilization to settle in the area until the arrival of the Incas in the 1300s. Arequipa gained more importance in the history of Peru after the arrival of the Spaniards, who founded the city of Arequipa in 1540. From that moment until now Arequipa has assumed more and more prominence in Peru so that today it is second only to Lima. The Spaniards used Sillar (white volcanic stone) to build beautiful pieces of Colonial architecture. The unique style of downtown Arequipa was a good reason to add it to the World Heritage List of the UNESCO in 2000. Below is a chronology of Arequipa including only the most important remarks:
 Incas in Arequipa (1300 AD – 1532 AD) Main Location in Arequipa: The most important sites in Arequipa were located in Puerto Inca, Province of Caraveli and along the Colca Valley, Province of Caylloma Region of Arequipa. Beginning of Presence in the Area: It is believed that Inca Mayta Capac in the 1300s started the conquest of the people living in this region by sending his army with Mitimaes (group of Inca subjects sent to a conquered region to teach new customs and practices). Main Survival Activities: Agriculture, fishing, handcrafting (ceramics), textiles, and construction of water channels and Andean terraces. Political Organization: The Inca Empire was ruled by an Inca king who claimed to be the son of the Sun (most important deity for the Incas). This was a tyrannical militarized leadership. The locals were ruled by the Inca King and controlled by upper-class subjects of the Empire. Decay of the Inca Empire in Arequipa: With the arrival of the Spaniards in Peru in 1532, Arequipa lost Inca presence and was colonized soon after. Highlights: Puerto Inca was an important area of influence during the Inca Empire. It is believed that Puerto Inca was an important fishing town. The fish catch was taken from Puerto Inka in Arequipa to Cusco the same day so the Inca King was able to eat fresh seafood in Cusco. (The commoners also ate seafood, but it was dehydrated with salt first before being taken to the Andes.) The Colca Valley was an important area for the Incas as well. Several Andean terraces were built along the valley to improve the production of crops. These terraces are still used by locals today. Some of these communities maintain ancient customs and practices. The Uyo Uyo site is an example of the presence of the Incas in the Province of Caylloma. The site is located near the town of Yanque.
 Wari Culture (700 AD- 1100 AD) Main Location in Arequipa: Valley of Majes, Province of Castilla, Region of Arequipa Beginning of Presence in the Area: The Wari people ruled parts of the Condesuyos and Castilla Provinces. These people didn't build any relevant temples or sites in Arequipa. Main Survival Activities: Agriculture, handcrafting (ceramics and sculptures), construction and urbanism, and goldsmithing. Political Organization: The Wari Empire was ruled by a military dictatorship. The locals were controlled and ruled by a military chief and his commandos. Decay of Wari in Arequipa: In the 1000s, the Wari leadership started to weaken, which led to several rebellions in several different regions. Eventually, the colonized in these areas of Arequipa rose up and freed themselves from the Waris. Highlights: With the influence of the Wari people, the locals made a few hundred stone petroglyphs. There is an incredible exhibition of their carved work located near the Valley of Majes.
 Arequipa Colonial (1532 AD – 1821 AD) Main Location in Arequipa: The city of Arequipa was founded in 1540 and from that time to the fall of Spanish rule, it was the most important city in the Region of Arequipa. The city of Arequipa is located in the Province of Arequipa, Region of Arequipa. Beginning of Presence in the Area: When the first expedition commanded by Diego de Almagro was returning from Chile in 1537, it was decided that the explorers would stay in the area as farmers. In 1540 don Garcí Manuel de Carbajal decided to found the city of Arequipa. At that time the layout of downtown Arequipa was planned with the location of the main square as well as the main streets and the "solares" (plots) which were assigned to the members of the expedition who took part in the foundation of the city. Main Survival Activities: Agriculture, commerce, fishing, and mining Political Organization: Arequipa was ruled by the Viceroy of the Viceroyalty of Peru, who ruled through the "Teniente Gobernador," and other subjects of the kingdom of Spain. Decay of the Viceroyalty of Peru in Arequipa: Arequipa took an active role in the independence of Peru. Important members of Arequipa supported the army commanded by the Argentinian General San Martin. Highlights: After the Spaniard foundation of Arequipa in 1540, the colonizers started the construction of beautiful churches, monasteries, and houses by mixing European techniques with local practices and a whitish volcanic stone known as "sillar." These stones have been molded by local and foreign artists for hundreds of years to create incredible pieces of art and architecture in Arequipa. The beauty of downtown Arequipa has been recognized by the UNESCO, which added downtown Arequipa to World Heritage List in 2000. The Santa Catalina Monastery is a superb example of the beauty of downtown Arequipa. This beautiful Colonial complex with 20,000 square meters is an exhibition of architecture and art. The mansion of the founder is another example of Colonial architecture and art. This mansion is a representation of the power and wealth of the colonizers in Arequipa.
 The Present (1921 AD - 2016 AD) Capital: The capital of Arequipa continued to be the city of Arequipa. Role of Arequipa in the Last 95 Years: During this period of time, Arequipa continued to be a region of insurrections and a provider of well-educated Peruvians. At the same time, Arequipa consolidated as the second most important region of Peru. Arequipa's Economy: Arequipa invested in the construction of immense water reservoirs in the high mountains of the Andes to provide water for the future to the people of Arequipa and the thousands of hectares dedicated to agriculture. In 1966, the construction of the Industrial Park brought progress to the region. Later on, the Majes-Siguas project added 60,000 hectares of land for agriculture. Arequipa's Culture: Arequipa continued to educate prominent Peruvian personalities. The schools and universities have played an important role in the history of Arequipa and Peru. For instance, Mario Vargas Llosa, born in Arequipa, is a winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature. His novels are known worldwide and have been translated into several foreign languages. Arequipa's Art: The art school of the University of San Agustín continues to improve the artistic skills of the Arequipa people. "La Casa del Moral" or "La Mansion del Fundador" offers great exhibitions of art from locals, other Peruvians, and foreigners. Highlights: In 1930, Luis Sanchez Cerro declared himself Supreme Chief of the Republic in the city of Arequipa. This led to the resignation of President Leguia. In 1948, Odria led in Arequipa another coup d’état resulting in Jose Luis Bustamante y Rivero’s fall from power. Odria stayed in power 8 years and Arequipa was favored with several projects, mainly in health and education. The beauty of downtown Arequipa has been recognized by the UNESCO, which added downtown Arequipa to World Heritage List in 2000. Nowadays Arequipa is an important tourist hub where travelers can learn about history and anthropology; eat delicious regional cuisine; enjoy incredible landscapes, flora, and fauna; and practice the adventure sports of their preference. Arequipa continues to have the second biggest economy of the country. The main sources of income are manufacturing, services (banks, real state, health, and private education), commerce, construction, and tourism.
 Arequipa Republic - First 100 years (1821 AD - 1921 AD) Capital: The capital of Arequipa is the city of Arequipa. Role of Arequipa during the First 100 Years: The Region of Arequipa played an important intellectual role in the independence of Peru. For instance, Juan Pablo Viscardo y Guzmán published the relevant "Carta a los Españoles Americanos," which sets the pillars of the independence doctrine. Once Peru gained its freedom from Spain, several insurrections started in Arequipa and ended with the designation of a new president. Arequipa's Economy: With the construction of the railroad from Arequipa to Mollendo as well as to Juliaca and Cusco in the early 1870s, the Region of Arequipa (department at that time) gained more importance in the economy of the country. The War of the Pacific (1879-1884) crashed the economy of Arequipa. Arequipa's Culture: Arequipa has been an important source of prominent Peruvian personalities such as Mariano Melgar (poet and musician), Dean Valdivia (founder of the Lauretian Academy), Francisco de Luna Pizarro (first President of the Peruvian Congress) and Nicolas de Pierola (President of the Republic). During this period, the Laurentian Academy was founded for the study of the sciences and arts. Later, in 1827, the Independence National School was inaugurated. The San Agustin University, founded in 1719, continued as an educational institution for the people of Arequipa as well as others. Arequipa's Art: The art school of the University of San Agustín has a well-deserved reputation which was first obtained during the Colonial period and continued during the Republic. The museums of Arequipa exhibit relevant pieces of art painted by locals, other Peruvians, and many important foreigners. The Santa Catalina Monastery exhibits great pieces of art. Highlights: The transition from a colony to a republic was a difficult one for Peruvians. Several coup d’états took place during the first years of the republic, many of them having started in Arequipa. Some examples are the insurrections of Santa Cruz and Orbegoso in 1836 and Ramon Castilla in 1854. Arequipa gained some stability with the construction of the railroad, which connected the cities of Mollendo, Juliaca, and Cusco. The traditional Iron Bridge, 488 meters long, was built in 1882 to allow the railroad to cross the Chili River. Its importance continued to the end of the 1800s. During the War of the Pacific, Arequipa was under the control of Chilean troops. The progress of Arequipa was interrupted and it wasn't until the early 1900s that Arequipa regained some stability. In 1908, the first telegraph was installed to link communication between the Provinces of Arequipa and Camana. The best water system in Peru started to be built in the early 1900s. The original Yumina Aqueduct is still in use and serves the inhabitants of Arequipa.

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